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Kenneth Siddle

( Manning & Cantley 2007 , Vasudevan & Garraway 2010 ). Both Akt-dependent and -independent mechanisms have been implicated in regulation of adipose tissue lipolysis by insulin ( Berggreen et al . 2009 , Choi et al . 2010 ). The precise functions of

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Pamela Petrocchi-Passeri, Cheryl Cero, Alessandro Cutarelli, Claudio Frank, Cinzia Severini, Alessandro Bartolomucci, and Roberta Possenti

). The C-terminal internal fragment TLQP-21 – which was originally investigated for its role in energy balance and lipolysis ( Bartolomucci et al . 2006 , 2009 , Fargali et al . 2012 , Possenti et al . 2012 ) – has recently been implicated in

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Ewa Harasim-Symbor, Karolina Konstantynowicz-Nowicka, and Adrian Chabowski

adipose tissue lipolysis and increases the content of fatty acids in plasma ( Han et al . 2015 ). In conclusion, the above-mentioned disturbances may be evoked by both endogenous and exogenous glucocorticoids, which play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis

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Björn Hansson, Sebastian Wasserstrom, Björn Morén, Vipul Periwal, Petter Vikman, Samuel W Cushman, Olga Göransson, Petter Storm, and Karin G Stenkula

HA , et al . 2015 ApoA-I Milano stimulates lipolysis in adipose cells independently of cAMP/PKA activation . Journal of Lipid Research 56 2248 – 2259 . ( ) 26504176 10.1194/jlr.M054767 Liu C DeRoo EP

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Li Hu, Fengli He, Meifeng Huang, Meihua Peng, Zhiguang Zhou, Feng Liu, and Yan-Shan Dai

inflammation causes inflammation and insulin resistance in other insulin-sensitive tissues ( Rosen & Spiegelman 2006 , Guilherme et al . 2008 , Reilly & Saltiel 2017 ). Our results also were in line with previous studies that showed lipolysis in AT promotes

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Jan Wilde, Maria Erdmann, Michael Mertens, Gabriele Eiselt, and Martin Schmidt

content in adipose tissue surrounding breast tumors ( Meng et al . 2001 ). These cytokines, e.g. TNFα, via the induction of insulin resistance, also stimulate lipolysis in adipocytes ( Uysal et al . 1997 ). As local lipolysis is the most likely source of

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S M Jeyakumar, A Vajreswari, B Sesikeran, and N V Giridharan

study of obesity. Scandinavian Journal of Laboratory Animal Sciences 23 131 –139. Gong HX , Guo XR, Fei L & Guo M, Liu QQ & Chen RH 2003 Lipolysis and apoptosis of adipocytes induced by neuropeptide Y-Y5 receptor

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Amy Warner and Jens Mittag

JJ Brent GA 2003 A thyroid hormone receptor alpha gene mutation (P398H) is associated with visceral adiposity and impaired catecholamine-stimulated lipolysis in mice . Journal of Biological Chemistry 278 38913 – 38920 . doi:10.1074/jbc

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Loes P M Duivenvoorde, Evert M van Schothorst, Annelies Bunschoten, and Jaap Keijer

 kDa lysophospholipase 12.8 2.70×10 −12 Lipolysis   Lpcat3 Lysophospholipid acyltransferase 5 2.7 2.10×10 −12 Lipolysis   Rdh11 * Retinol dehydrogenase 11 9.6 6.10×10 −13 Reduction of short-chain  aldehydes   Srebf2 Sterol regulatory element

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Louise K Metcalfe, Greg C Smith, and Nigel Turner

. 2003 , Coll et al . 2008 , Henique et al . 2010 , Capel et al . 2016 ). Indeed, the apparently futile, ATP-consuming cycle of FA re-esterification to TAGs during adipocyte lipolysis appears designed to protect cells from lipotoxic stress