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Giulia Cantini, Martina Trabucco, Alessandra Di Franco, Edoardo Mannucci, and Michaela Luconi

-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), but also by glucagon itself in a paracrine way ( Wewer et al. 2016 , Müller et al. 2017 ). Glucagon reduces food intake in rodents and humans; moreover, a sustained activation of GCGR has been demonstrated to enhance lipolysis

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Edra London, Maria Nesterova, and Constantine A Stratakis

response to obesogenic diet. The most extensively studied model is the diet-induced obesity (DIO)-resistant PKA RIIβ KO mouse that has elevated energy expenditure and basal lipolysis ( Cummings et al . 1996 , Planas et al . 1999 ) improved insulin

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Liping Luo, Wanxiang Jiang, Hui Liu, Jicheng Bu, Ping Tang, Chongyangzi Du, Zhipeng Xu, Hairong Luo, Bilian Liu, Bo Xiao, Zhiguang Zhou, and Feng Liu

expressed from the maternally inherited allele in periphery tissues such as fat, muscle and liver tissues ( Lim et al . 2004 ). Recently, we have identified GRB10 as a negative-feedback regulator of the mTORC1 signaling pathway promotes lipolysis and

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A R Rodrigues, D Sousa, H Almeida, and A M Gouveia

. 1993 ). MC2R is also found in the skin ( Slominski et al . 1996 ) and in mouse adipocytes ( Boston & Cone 1996 ), where it has been suggested to promote lipolysis ( Boston 1999 , Moller et al . 2011 ) and decrease leptin production ( Norman et al

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Hyeon Young Park, Hye Suk Kang, and Seung-Soon Im

the liver and skeletal muscle under physiological conditions; thereafter, FAs are broken down through β-oxidation in the mitochondria or are stored as TGs ( Rambold et al . 2015 ). Notably, stored hepatic TGs predominantly originate from the lipolysis

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Janne Lebeck

used for the synthesis of TG in the fed state is derived from glycolysis. During states of increased energy demand, such as fasting and exercise, adipocyte lipolysis is increased by activation of adipose TG lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase, which

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Inna Astapova

) Src2 −/− (Ncoa2) Lean, increased glucose tolerance, and insulin resistance on high-fat diet. Increased basal and stimulated lipolysis, elevated EE PPARG Picard et al. (2002) Unlikely: the phenotype is opposite of what would be expected in

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Paola Moreno, Bernardo Nuche-Berenguer, Irene Gutiérrez-Rojas, Alicia Acitores, Verónica Sancho, Isabel Valverde, Nieves González, and María L Villanueva-Peñacarrillo

rat liver, skeletal muscle and fat, in an insulin-independent manner ( Alcántara et al . 1997 , Morales et al . 1997 , Sancho et al . 2005 ), as well as lipogenesis and lipolysis in the latter cells ( Sancho et al . 2005 ). In rat muscles, Ex-4

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Michelle Colomiere, Michael Permezel, and Martha Lappas

( Sivan et al . 1998 ). In the third trimester, postprandial FFA levels increase and insulin sensitivity worsens by 40–60% compared with pre-pregnancy ( Catalano et al . 1993 , 1999 ). Insulin's ability to suppress whole-body lipolysis is reduced during

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Jessica A Deis, Hong Guo, Yingjie Wu, Chengyu Liu, David A Bernlohr, and Xiaoli Chen

lipolysis to provide fatty acids to support uncoupling of the electron transport chain ( Cao et al . 2001 , 2004 ). However, alternative, non-adrenergic pathways have also been identified as promoting beiging of WAT. The anti-diabetic drug rosiglitazone