Neuropathic pain represents one of the most common complications associated with diabetes mellitus (DM) that impacts quality of life. Accumulating studies have highlighted the involvement of miRNAs in DM. Thus, the current study aimed to investigate the roles of miR-155 in diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). In vitro DPN models were established using rat Schwann cells (SCs) by treatment with 5.5 mM glucose. Gain- or loss-of-function studies were conducted to determine the effect of miR-155 on Nrf2, cellular function, reactive oxygen species and inflammation. Rat DNP models were established by streptozotocin injection and damage of sciatic nerve. Next, miR-155 antagomir or agomir was employed to investigate the effects associated with miR-155 on motor and sciatic nerve conduction velocity (MNCV, SNCV), angiogenesis and inflammatory response in vivo. Nrf2 was identified to be a target of miR-155 by dual-luciferase reporter gene assay. Silencing of miR-155 or restoration of Nrf2 promoted cell proliferation, inhibited apoptosis and alleviated inflammation in vitro. miR-155 antagomir-induced inhibition increased MNCV and SNCV, strengthened angiogenesis and alleviated inflammation in DPN rats. Additionally, the effects exerted by miR-155 were reversed when Nrf2 was restored both in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, the key findings of our study provide evidence indicating that miR-155 targeted and suppressed Nrf2 in DPN. miR-155 silencing was found to alleviate sciatic nerve injury in DPN, highlighting its potential as a therapeutic target for DPN.
Ji Chen, Chao Li, Wenjie Liu, Bin Yan, Xiaoling Hu and Fengrui Yang
Ricardo Núñez Miguel, Jane Sanders, Paul Sanders, Stuart Young, Jill Clark, Katarzyna Kabelis, Jane Wilmot, Michele Evans, Emma Roberts, Xiaoling Hu, Jadwiga Furmaniak and Bernard Rees Smith
Binding of a new thyroid-stimulating human monoclonal autoantibody (MAb) K1–18 to the TSH receptor (TSHR) leucine-rich domain (LRD) was predicted using charge–charge interaction mapping based on unique complementarities between the TSHR in interactions with the thyroid-stimulating human MAb M22 or the thyroid-blocking human MAb K1–70. The interactions of K1–18 with the TSHR LRD were compared with the interactions in the crystal structures of the M22–TSHR LRD and K1–70–TSHR LRD complexes. Furthermore, the predicted position of K1–18 on the TSHR was validated by the effects of TSHR mutations on the stimulating activity of K1–18. A similar approach was adopted for predicting binding of a mouse thyroid-blocking MAb RSR-B2 to the TSHR. K1–18 is predicted to bind to the TSHR LRD in a similar way as TSH and M22. The binding analysis suggests that K1–18 light chain (LC) mimics binding of the TSH-α chain and the heavy chain (HC) mimics binding of the TSH-β chain. By contrast, M22 HC mimics the interactions of TSH-α while M22 LC mimics TSH-β in interactions with the TSHR. The observed interactions in the M22–TSHR LRD and K1–70–TSHR LRD complexes (crystal structures) with TSH–TSHR LRD (comparative model) and K1–18–TSHR LRD (predictive binding) suggest that K1–18 and M22 interactions with the receptor may reflect interaction of thyroid-stimulating autoantibodies in general. Furthermore, K1–70 and RSR-B2 interactions with the TSHR LRD may reflect binding of TSHR-blocking autoantibodies in general. Interactions involving the C-terminal part of the TSHR LRD may be important for receptor activation by autoantibodies.
Paul Sanders, Stuart Young, Jane Sanders, Katarzyna Kabelis, Stuart Baker, Andrew Sullivan, Michele Evans, Jill Clark, Jane Wilmot, Xiaoling Hu, Emma Roberts, Michael Powell, Ricardo Núñez Miguel, Jadwiga Furmaniak and Bernard Rees Smith
A complex of the TSH receptor extracellular domain (amino acids 22–260; TSHR260) bound to a blocking-type human monoclonal autoantibody (K1-70) was purified, crystallised and the structure solved at 1.9 Å resolution. K1-70 Fab binds to the concave surface of the TSHR leucine-rich domain (LRD) forming a large interface (2565 Å2) with an extensive network of ionic, polar and hydrophobic interactions. Mutation of TSHR or K1-70 residues showing strong interactions in the solved structure influenced the activity of K1-70, indicating that the binding detail observed in the complex reflects interactions of K1-70 with intact, functionally active TSHR. Unbound K1-70 Fab was prepared and crystallised to 2.22 Å resolution. Virtually no movement was observed in the atoms of K1-70 residues on the binding interface compared with unbound K1-70, consistent with ‘lock and key’ binding. The binding arrangements in the TSHR260–K1-70 Fab complex are similar to previously observed for the TSHR260–M22 Fab complex; however, K1-70 clasps the concave surface of the TSHR LRD in approximately the opposite orientation (rotated 155°) to M22. The blocking autoantibody K1-70 binds more N-terminally on the TSHR concave surface than either the stimulating autoantibody M22 or the hormone TSH, and this may reflect its different functional activity. The structure of TSHR260 in the TSHR260–K1-70 and TSHR260–M22 complexes show a root mean square deviation on all Cα atoms of only 0.51 Å. These high-resolution crystal structures provide a foundation for developing new strategies to understand and control TSHR activation and the autoimmune response to the TSHR.