The situation following anti-obesity drug termination is rarely investigated, eventhough a decrease in body weight needs to be sustained. Therefore, this study examined the impact of twice-daily peripheral administration of 5 mg/kg [N-palm-γGlu-Lys11] prolactin-releasing peptide 31 (palm11-PrRP31) in mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO from consuming a high-fat diet) after 28 days of treatment (palm11-PrRP31 group) and after 14 days of peptide treatment followed by 14 days of discontinuation (palm11-PrRP31 + saline group). At the end of the treatment, cumulative food intake, body weight and subcutaneous fat weight/body weight ratio and leptin plasma level were reduced significantly in both the palm11-PrRP31 group and the palm11-PrRP31 + saline group compared to the saline control group. This reduction correlated with significantly increased FOSB, a marker of long-term neuronal potentiation, in the nucleus arcuatus and nucleus tractus solitarii, areas known to be affected by the anorexigenic effect of palm11-PrRP31. Moreover, activation of leptin-related hypothalamic signaling was registered through an increase in phosphoinositide-3-kinase, increased phosphorylation of protein kinase B (PKB, AKT) and enhanced extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation. Besides, lowered apoptotic markers c-JUN N-terminal kinase and c-JUN phosphorylation were registered in the hypothalami of both palm11-PrRP31-treated groups. This study demonstrates that palm11-PrRP31 positively affects feeding and leptin-related hypothalamic signaling, not only after 28 days of treatment but even 14 days after the termination of a 14-day long treatment without the yo-yo effect.
Martina Holubová, Lucie Hrubá, Barbora Neprašová, Zuzana Majerčíková, Zdeňka Lacinová, Jaroslav Kuneš, Lenka Maletínská, and Blanka Železná
Lucia Kořínková, Martina Holubová, Barbora Neprašová, Lucie Hrubá, Veronika Pražienková, Michal Bencze, Martin Haluzík, Jaroslav Kuneš, Lenka Maletínská, and Blanka Železná
Lack of leptin production in ob/ob mice results in obesity and prediabetes that could be partly reversed by leptin supplementation. In the hypothalamus, leptin supports the production of prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP), an anorexigenic neuropeptide synthesized and active in the brain. In our recent studies, the palmitoylated PrRP analog palm11-PrRP31 showed a central anorexigenic effect after peripheral administration. This study investigates whether PrRP could compensate for the deficient leptin in ob/ob mice. In two separate experiments, palm11-PrRP31 (5 mg/kg) and leptin (5 or 10 μg/kg) were administered subcutaneously twice daily for 2 or 8 weeks to 8- (younger) or 16-(older) week-old ob/ob mice, respectively, either separately or in combination. The body weight decreasing effect of palm11-PrRP31 in both younger and older ob/ob mice was significantly powered by a subthreshold leptin dose, the combined effect could be then considered synergistic. Leptin and palm11-PrRP31 also synergistically lowered liver weight and blood glucose in younger ob/ob mice. Reduced liver weight was linked to decreased mRNA expression of lipogenic enzymes. In the hypothalamus of older ob/ob mice, two main leptin anorexigenic signaling pathways, namely, Janus kinase, signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 activation and AMP-activated protein kinase de-activation, were induced by leptin, palm11-PrRP31, and their combination. Thus, palm11-PrRP31 could partially compensate for leptin deficiency in ob/ob mice. In conclusion, the results demonstrate a synergistic effect of leptin and our lipidized palm11-PrRP31 analog.