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Deyana Ivanova Department of Women and Children’s Health, Faculty of Life Science and Medicine, King’s College London, UK
Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Hypertension, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

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Kevin T O’Byrne Department of Women and Children’s Health, Faculty of Life Science and Medicine, King’s College London, UK

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The exact neural construct underlying the dynamic secretion of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) has only recently been identified despite the detection of multiunit electrical activity volleys associated with pulsatile luteinising hormone (LH) secretion four decades ago. Since the discovery of kisspeptin/neurokinin B/dynorphin neurons in the mammalian hypothalamus, there has been much research into the role of this neuronal network in controlling the oscillatory secretion of gonadotrophin hormones. In this review, we provide an update of the progressive application of cutting-edge techniques combined with mathematical modelling by the neuroendocrine community, which are transforming the functional investigation of the GnRH pulse generator. Understanding the nature and function of the GnRH pulse generator can greatly inform a wide range of clinical studies investigating infertility treatments.

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