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Rachel S Fletcher and Gareth G Lavery

NAD + as a redox cofactor and signalling molecule The vital role of NAD + in redox metabolism was first described in 1906 by Arthur Harden as being a required cofactor for alcohol fermentation ( Harden & Young 1906 ). It has since been well

Open access

Oro Uchenunu, Michael Pollak, Ivan Topisirovic and Laura Hulea

order to sustain elevated protein synthesis required for neoplastic growth, malignant cells must adjust their energy metabolism. MTOR is a key regulator of translation ( Sonenberg & Hinnebusch 2009 ). AMP-activated protein kinase ( AMPK ) acts as an

Open access

Daniela Nasteska and David J Hodson

only respond to elevated glucose, avoiding the inappropriate and damaging release of insulin. Following transport into the cytosol, the sugar stimulates oxidative and glycolytic metabolism, leading to ATP generation in the mitochondria at the expense of

Open access

Yan Zheng and Kevin D Houston

.18632/oncotarget.22552 ) 29312586 Barton M Prossnitz ER 2015 Emerging roles of GPER in diabetes and atherosclerosis . Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism 26 . ( https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tem.2015.02.003 ) Brown LM Clegg DJ 2010 Central

Open access

Tingyuan Ren, Yuping Zhu, Xuejuan Xia, Yongbo Ding, Jing Guo and Jianquan Kan

Introduction As a global disease, diabetes mellitus seriously endangers human health. It is a glucose, fat and protein metabolism disorder caused by the absolute or relative deficiency in insulin secretion (Michaelides et al . 2016

Open access

Bo Li, Zhiguo Zhang, Huizhi Zhang, Kai Quan, Yan Lu, Dongsheng Cai and Guang Ning

with the suppression of several genes involved in the FA oxidation pathway ( Wanless & Lentz 1990 , Mitsuyoshi et al . 2009 ). Intracellular hepatic FA metabolism is regulated mainly via the mitochondrial β-oxidation systems ( Kurtz et al . 1998

Open access

Irit Hochberg, Innocence Harvey, Quynh T Tran, Erin J Stephenson, Ariel L Barkan, Alan R Saltiel, William F Chandler and Dave Bridges

leads to similar clinical manifestations. Numerous studies have shown that glucocorticoids have profound effects on adipose tissue metabolism, including the promotion of adipocyte differentiation ( Hauner et al . 1987 ) and induction of lipolysis and

Open access

Douglas A Gibson, Paul A Foster, Ioannis Simitsidellis, Hilary O D Critchley, Olympia Kelepouri, Frances Collins and Philippa T K Saunders

of oestrogen-primed human endometrial stromal fibroblast (hESF) (reviewed in Gellersen & Brosens 2014 ), we have demonstrated an important role for local (intracrine) steroid metabolism in fine-tuning the cellular differentiation of hESFs ( Gibson

Open access

Yihong Wan and Ronald M Evans

thiazolidinediones (TZDs) such as rosiglitazone (BRL; Willson & Wahli 1997 ). PPARγ regulates a diverse array of physiological processes including adipogenesis, lipid metabolism, and insulin sensitivity, as well as diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and

Open access

Yanjun Cui and Xianhong Gu

intestine of finishing pigs have not been extensively studied. We hypothesized that changes of intestinal proteome would mediate the effects of HS on intestinal integrity, function and metabolism in finishing pigs. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the