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Open access

T Traboulsi, M El Ezzy, J L Gleason, and S Mader

pure AEs and SERMs act via different molecular mechanisms. Indeed, although 4-hydroxytamoxifen increases overall ERα protein levels, pure AEs accelerate ERα turnover through the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway in ERα-positive breast cancer cells and in

Open access

Tingyuan Ren, Yuping Zhu, Xuejuan Xia, Yongbo Ding, Jing Guo, and Jianquan Kan

(Fogg et al . 2011). The ubiquitin–proteasome pathway (UPP) connects the ubiquitin to the target protein by a three-enzyme cascade. UPP is the most vital and selective protein degradation pathway in mammalian cells, and it mediates the degradation of 80

Open access

Dan Hanson, Adam Stevens, Philip G Murray, Graeme C M Black, and Peter E Clayton

( Huber et al . 2005 , Hanson et al . 2009 , 2011 b , 2012 ). CUL7 forms the central component of an SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase ( Dias et al . 2002 ) that localises to the Golgi apparatus ( Litterman et al . 2011 ) and has been shown to be involved in

Open access

Irit Hochberg, Innocence Harvey, Quynh T Tran, Erin J Stephenson, Ariel L Barkan, Alan R Saltiel, William F Chandler, and Dave Bridges

al . 2007 ). Exposure of rats to glucocorticoids activates the muscle ubiquitin-proteasome system ( Wing & Goldberg 1993 , Price et al . 1994 ), increasing muscle expression of proteases (cathepsins B and D, calpain) and components of the ubiquitin

Open access

Cristina L Esteves, Val Kelly, Valérie Bégay, Simon G Lillico, Achim Leutz, Jonathan R Seckl, and Karen E Chapman

allows for GFP expression. Constitutive expression of the reverse Tet transactivator (rtTA3) and the neomycin resistance gene (Neo) is driven by the ubiquitin-c (Ubi-c) promoter ( Fig. 1A ). In order to express C/EBPβ-LIP in mature adipocytes, we first

Open access

Rodolfo Niño Fong, Zahra Fatehi-Hassanabad, Simon C Lee, Hongfang Lu, Michael B Wheeler, and Catherine B Chan

is retained in the cytoplasm by association with IκBα. IKKβ phosphorylation of IκBα allows it to enter the ubiquitin pathway for degradation, thereby permitting translocation of NF-κB RelA subunit to the nucleus ( Magnani et al . 2000 ). Laybutt et

Open access

Eugenia Mata-Greenwood, P Naomi Jackson, William J Pearce, and Lubo Zhang

endothelial cells (HUVECs) that were resistant to in vitro stimulation by DEX had an increased expression of the E3 ubiquitin ligase gene BCL2-athanogene 1 ( BAG1 ) and subsequent GR protein ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. It was found that the

Open access

Lingyun Zhang, Takashi Sugiyama, Nao Murabayashi, Takashi Umekawa, Ning Ma, Yuki Kamimoto, Yoshihiro Ogawa, and Norimasa Sagawa

adipocytes and by inducing ubiquitin-mediated degradation of the IRS1 through the suppression of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) and SOCS3 ( Emanuelli et al . 2000 , Kristiansen & Mandrup-Poulsen 2005 ). There was a different gene expression of IL6 between SAT

Open access

James G Yarger, Robert E Babine, Michael Bittner, Erin Shanle, Wei Xu, Pamela Hershberger, and Steven H Nye

-C motif) ligand 1 CCL1 6346 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.66 3.20  Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 8 CCL8 6355 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.66 3.20 Housekeeping  Actin, alpha 2, smooth muscle, aorta ACTA2 59 0.00 0.47 0.00 0.00 0.00 −0.24  Ubiquitin B UBB 7314 0.00 0.00 0

Open access

Shalinee Dhayal, Kaiyven Afi Leslie, Mohammad Baity, Pouria Akhbari, Sarah J Richardson, Mark A Russell, and Noel G Morgan

cell surface are unlikely to be a primary cause. Rather, it seems more probable that downstream signalling events are involved and, in other cell types, the levels of expression of a key interferon-sensitive gene, ubiquitin-specific peptidase 18 (USP18