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Open access

Daniela Nasteska and David J Hodson

DM, peripheral (and possibly central ( Kullmann et al . 2016 )) insulin resistance is compensated by an increase in insulin secretion from the beta cell mass, maintaining glucose homeostasis ( Samuel & Shulman 2012 ). However, at a poorly defined

Open access

Rodolfo Niño Fong, Zahra Fatehi-Hassanabad, Simon C Lee, Hongfang Lu, Michael B Wheeler, and Catherine B Chan

is still unclear. In pancreatic β-cells, increased UCP2 expression is associated with suppression of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion ( Chan et al . 1999 , 2001 ) and mediates the negative effects of superoxide on insulin secretion ( Krauss et

Open access

Rihua Zhang, Dongming Su, Weidong Zhu, Qiong Huang, Menglan Liu, Yi Xue, Yuanyuan Zhang, Dong li, Allan Zhao, and Yun Liu

with E 2 was higher than physiological concentrations at 120 min (32.2±2.2 vs 6.1±1.1 mM; Fig. 2A ). The OVX rats had already become glucose-intolerant at this time. When compared with control rats, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was abolished

Open access

Tingyuan Ren, Yuping Zhu, Xuejuan Xia, Yongbo Ding, Jing Guo, and Jianquan Kan

Introduction As a global disease, diabetes mellitus seriously endangers human health. It is a glucose, fat and protein metabolism disorder caused by the absolute or relative deficiency in insulin secretion (Michaelides et al . 2016

Open access

Ying Ying, Huazhang Zhu, Zhen Liang, Xiaosong Ma, and Shiwei Li

of palmitate-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis has not been determined thus far. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) is an incretin hormone synthesized and secreted by intestinal L-cells and stimulates insulin secretion from pancreatic b-cells in a glucose

Open access

Hyon-Seung Yi, Joon Young Chang, and Minho Shong

mitochondrial membrane, in beta cells triggers progressive failure of insulin secretion and cellular proliferation ( Kim et al . 2015 ). Beta-cell-specific knockout of Tfam , a transcription factor of mtDNA-encoded OxPhos polypeptides, promotes hyperglycemia

Open access

Paul de Goede, Jakob Wefers, Eline Constance Brombacher, Patrick Schrauwen, and Andries Kalsbeek

gradient and thus to a decrease in the ATP/ADP ratio ( Lee et al . 2011 ). Since the ATP/ADP ratio is an important cue for insulin secretion, this observation may link the molecular circadian clock machinery via mitochondrial respiration to insulin

Open access

Yan Zheng and Kevin D Houston

impaired glucose tolerance within 6 months of age ( Martensson et al. 2009 ). Of note, both classical and non-classical estrogen signaling regulates glucose uptake, glucose storage, insulin secretion and has a role in insulin sensitivity ( Brown & Clegg

Open access

Gemma Tan, Andrew G Elefanty, and Edouard G Stanley

). Dionne KE Colton CK Yarmush ML 1993 Effect of hypoxia on insulin secretion by isolated rat and canine islets of Langerhans . Diabetes 42 12 – 21 . ( doi:10.2337/diab.42.1.12 ). Dor Y Brown J

Open access

Rachel S Fletcher and Gareth G Lavery

Sasaki Y Wolberger C Townsend RR , et al . 2007 Nampt/PBEF/Visfatin regulates insulin secretion in beta cells as a systemic NAD biosynthetic enzyme . Cell Metabolism 6 363 – 375 . ( ) 17983582 10.1016/j