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Open access

Zhi Zhang, Fang Wang, Bing-jian Wang, Guang Chu, Qunan Cao, Bao-Gui Sun, and Qiu-Yan Dai

Introduction While obesity has become a major public health concern, particularly in adolescents, the prevalence of hypertension has been increasing ( Egan et al . 2010 , Shay et al . 2013 , Zhao et al . 2013 ). Accumulating evidence has shown

Open access

Hyon-Seung Yi, Joon Young Chang, and Minho Shong

of mitochondrial OxPhos perturbations on systemic energy metabolism that may be relevant in the treatment of obesity and diabetes. We also describe the effects of UPR mt on cellular and systemic physiology during the conditions of mitochondrial

Open access

Farhana Naznin, Koji Toshinai, T M Zaved Waise, Tadashi Okada, Hideyuki Sakoda, and Masamitsu Nakazato

Introduction Obesity is a long-term disturbance of energy metabolism in which energy intake exceeds energy expenditure over a prolonged period ( Moehlecke et al . 2016 ). The control of food intake and body weight involves central nervous

Open access

Daniela Nasteska and David J Hodson

downregulated/desensitised during obesity/T2DM ( Lynn et al . 2001 , Meier & Nauck 2010 ), stabilised variants of GLP-1 have served as a template for production of incretin mimetics. For an in-depth review of stimulus–secretion coupling in the beta cell, the

Open access

Jun Zhou, Qilong Wang, Ye Ding, and Ming-Hui Zou

Introduction Insulin resistance, a hallmark of obesity and fundamental cause of type 2 diabetes, is characterized by a diminished ability of insulin to regulate glucose homeostasis in insulin-sensitive organs including liver, skeletal muscle, and

Open access

Cristina L Esteves, Val Kelly, Valérie Bégay, Simon G Lillico, Achim Leutz, Jonathan R Seckl, and Karen E Chapman

obesity-related disorders. However, introduction of nucleic acids and, consequently, the manipulation of genes in fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes are difficult to achieve. pSLIK plasmids, encoding a tetracycline-regulated transcriptional unit in a

Open access

Lingyun Zhang, Takashi Sugiyama, Nao Murabayashi, Takashi Umekawa, Ning Ma, Yuki Kamimoto, Yoshihiro Ogawa, and Norimasa Sagawa

Introduction A chronic low-grade inflammatory state of adipose tissue has been implicated in the development of insulin resistance in non-pregnant (NP) obese subjects ( Weisberg et al . 2003 , Xu et al . 2003 ). Adipocytes in obesity increase

Open access

Irit Hochberg, Innocence Harvey, Quynh T Tran, Erin J Stephenson, Ariel L Barkan, Alan R Saltiel, William F Chandler, and Dave Bridges

Introduction Cushing's disease, or persistently high circulating levels of cortisol secondary to a pituitary adenoma, leads to significant truncal obesity and diabetes ( Cushing 1932 ). Obesity and diabetes are major factors in morbidity and

Open access

Bo Li, Zhiguo Zhang, Huizhi Zhang, Kai Quan, Yan Lu, Dongsheng Cai, and Guang Ning

Introduction Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), characterised by excessive fat deposits in the liver, is a risk factor for a variety of metabolic diseases including obesity, dyslipidaemia and type 2 diabetes. It can also trigger a

Open access

Rihua Zhang, Dongming Su, Weidong Zhu, Qiong Huang, Menglan Liu, Yi Xue, Yuanyuan Zhang, Dong li, Allan Zhao, and Yun Liu

models have shown that oophorectomy results in obesity, altered fat distribution, adipose tissue inflammation, and development of fatty liver ( Rogers et al . 2009 , Stubbins et al . 2012 ). Estrogen therapy is believed to have beneficial effects on