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Jun Yang and Morag J Young

involves the covalent attachment of the ubiquitin-like protein SUMO-1 to its target and requires four enzymes: the SUMO protease, E1-activating enzyme, E2-conjugating enzyme, and E3 ligase ( Seeler & Dejean 2003 ). Ubc9 is an E2-conjugating enzyme that acts

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C Bolduc, M Larose, M Yoshioka, P Ye, P Belleau, C Labrie, J Morissette, V Raymond, F Labrie, and J St-Amand

) -1456,-199/ TAGCTTCCTCT 0 0 1 12* ↑ sequestosome 1; EST RIKEN (Mm. 200125, BC006019; Mm. 41784, BM207023) Protein turnover CAGATCTTTGT 29 27 110* 43 ↑ ubiquitin C; EST RIKEN (Mm. 331, BC021837; Mm. 41423, BB476893) -513/ GTAAGCATAAA 1 2 0 19* ↑ EST

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Ana Paula Lepique, Miriam S Moraes, Kátia M Rocha, Claudia B Eichler, Glaucia N M Hajj, Telma T Schwindt, and Hugo A Armelin

). Recognition of c-Myc protein by the ubiquitin proteolytic system ( Salghetti et al. 2000 ) requires sequential phosphorylation of both Ser62 and Thr58 ( Sears et al. 2000 ), whose regulation is complex. First, phosphorylation of Ser62 by ERK1/2 promotes

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Diego Russo, Giuseppe Damante, Efisio Puxeddu, Cosimo Durante, and Sebastiano Filetti

third mechanism is post-translational modifications of the N-terminal tails of histones. They include acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, ubiquitination, SUMOylation (i.e. the attachment of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) proteins) and ADP

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O.R. Vaughan, T.L. Powell, and T. Jansson

Liu E Knutzen CA Lang ES Lombardo CR Sankar S Toth JI Petroski MD Ronai Z Chiang GG 2009 REDD1, an inhibitor of mTOR signalling, is regulated by the CUL4A-DDB1 ubiquitin ligase . EMBO Reports 866 – 872. (

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Nikolaos Volakakis, Michal Malewicz, Banafsheh Kadkhodai, Thomas Perlmann, and Gerard Benoit

is post-translationally modified in a way that influences Nurr1 transcriptional activity. In a recent report ( Galleguillos et al. 2004 ), Nurr1 was shown to interact with the SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier)-E3 ligase protein inhibitor of

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Katherine A Leehy, Tarah M Regan Anderson, Andrea R Daniel, Carol A Lange, and Julie H Ostrander

recruitment of cofactors. Differential recruitment of coactivators or corepressors to the transcriptional complex is a critical step in expression or repression of SR target genes. SUMOylation, the addition of small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) peptides

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Seán P Barry, Kevin M Lawrence, James McCormick, Surinder M Soond, Mike Hubank, Simon Eaton, Ahila Sivarajah, Tiziano M Scarabelli, Richard A Knight, Christoph Thiemermann, David S Latchman, Paul A Townsend, and Anastasis Stephanou

.02 1387617_at Tpm3 Tropomyosin 3, gamma −2.5 0.02 1370344_at Hspa4 Heat shock protein 4 2.4 0.02 1389580_at Hltf Helicase-like transcription factor 2.4 0.03 1399073_at Otub1 OTU domain, ubiquitin aldehyde binding 1 2.4 0.02 1372141_at Pfdn2 Prefoldin 2 2.4 0

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Caroline H Diep, Andrea R Daniel, Laura J Mauro, Todd P Knutson, and Carol A Lange

, hormone-binding domain; AF, activation function 1–3; P, phosphorylation; A, acetylation; SUMO, small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMOylation). Dysregulation of Kinase Inputs to PR in Cancer: the percent of The Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network 2011 (TCGA

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Carolina S Martinez, Verónica G Piazza, María E Díaz, Ravneet K Boparai, Oge Arum, María C Ramírez, Lorena González, Damasia Becú-Villalobos, Andrzej Bartke, Daniel Turyn, Johanna G Miquet, and Ana I Sotelo

. Moreover, SOCS2 has been shown to be a key regulator of GHR sensitivity, as it is part of a ubiquitin ligase complex that regulates GHR levels ( Vesterlund et al . 2011 ). In addition, STAT5 activity is inhibited in the liver by FGF21 and BCL6. FGF21 is a