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R Núñez Miguel, J Sanders, D Y Chirgadze, T L Blundell, J Furmaniak, and B Rees Smith

-stimulating hormone, TSH). There are, however, only three high affinity GPH receptors as LH and CG bind the LH receptor (LHR). GPHs control several major physiological processes, with TSH regulating metabolism through the production of thyroid hormones and the

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Eva D'Amico, Stéphanie Gayral, Claude Massart, Jacqueline Van Sande, Jeremy F Reiter, Jacques E Dumont, Bernard Robaye, and Stéphane Schurmans

. In order to assure the synthesis of tri-iodothyronine (T 3 ) and thyroxine (T 4 ) thyroid hormones, the TSH receptor and the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) must reach the basolateral surface, while thyroperoxidase and the dual oxidases must be

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S Yamaguchi, Y Murata, T Nagaya, Y Hayashi, S Ohmori, Y Nimura, and H Seo

We have previously demonstrated that dexamethasone (DEX) enhances the T3-dependent increase in type I 5'-deiodinase (5'DI) mRNA in primary cultured rat hepatocytes grown as spheroids. Here we report that DEX-enhanced T3-responsiveness also occurs in two other T3-regulated hepatic genes, Spot 14 and malic enzyme. This enhancement was inhibited by pretreatment with cycloheximide and the stability of 5'DI and Spot 14 mRNAs was not affected by DEX. We thus hypothesized that a factor(s) that augments T3-responsiveness is induced by DEX. Among the possible candidates examined, retinoid-X receptor alpha (RXRalpha), which is a main heterodimer partner with T3 receptor, appeared to be involved. Whereas DEX increased the amount of RXRalpha mRNA, it did not affect the expression of other possible factors such as steroid receptor coactivator-1 and the binding protein of cAMP response element-binding protein. Northern and Western blot analysis, and electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed that DEX increased RXRalpha expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. Maximal increase in RXRalpha protein was achieved with the addition of physiological concentrations of DEX (10(-8) M). To test whether the DEX-induced increase in RXRalpha affects ligand-dependent transcriptional activation through other receptors that form heterodimer with RXR, we examined its effect on the retinoic acid (RA)/RA receptor (RAR) system. Indeed, DEX also enhanced the RA-dependent increase in RARbeta mRNA in a cycloheximide-sensitive manner. Increase in the level of RXRalpha in hepatocytes by infection with the RXRalpha-expressing adenovirus resulted in enhancement of the T3-dependent increase in 5'DI mRNA. These results strongly suggest that the DEX-induced augmentation of T3-responsiveness in cultured hepatocytes is mediated, in part, by the increased expression of RXRalpha.

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Maciej Pietrzak and Monika Puzianowska-Kuznicka

receptors (TRs) ( Oetting & Yen 2007 ), a ligand-dependent transcription factor that binds specific DNA sequences (thyroid hormone-responsive elements, TREs) present in the promoters of target genes ( Harvey & Williams 2002 ). Four major TR isoforms TRα1

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Patrizia Agretti, Giuseppina De Marco, Laura Russo, Alessandro Saba, Andrea Raffaelli, Maja Marchini, Grazia Chiellini, Lucia Grasso, Aldo Pinchera, Paolo Vitti, Thomas S Scanlan, Riccardo Zucchi, and Massimo Tonacchera

Pinchera A 1993 Detection of thyroid-stimulating antibody using Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with cloned human thyrotropin receptor . Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 76 499 – 503 . doi:10.1210/jc.76.2.499 . Wood WJL

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Sadako Suzuki, Shigekazu Sasaki, Hiroshi Morita, Yutaka Oki, Daisuke Turiya, Takeshi Ito, Hiroko Misawa, Keiko Ishizuka, and Hirotoshi Nakamura

heterodimer recruits co-activators including members of the p160 protein family, CREB-binding protein/p300, and thyroid hormone receptor (THR)-associated protein 220 ( Ge et al . 2002 ), resulting in transactivation ( Perissi & Rosenfeld 2005 ). The function

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C M Klinge, S C Jernigan, K A Mattingly, K E Risinger, and J Zhang

display experiments showing differences in the conformation of 4-OHT-occupied ERα and ERβ in vitro ( Paige et al. 1999 ). Recently, the corepressors NCoR and SMRT were shown to interact directly with ACTR and facilitate thyroid receptor

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C de Bruin, R A Feelders, A M Waaijers, P M van Koetsveld, D M Sprij-Mooij, S W J Lamberts, and L J Hofland

-affinity receptors that belong to the family of G-protein coupled receptors. Both for SS and DA multiple receptor subtypes have been identified: sst 1–5 and D 1–5 ( Missale et al . 1998 , Patel 1999 ). The presence of these receptors has been demonstrated on a

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Luca Mologni, Elisa Sala, Sara Cazzaniga, Roberta Rostagno, Thomas Kuoni, Miriam Puttini, Jenny Bain, Loredana Cleris, Sara Redaelli, Barbara Riva, Franca Formelli, Leonardo Scapozza, and Carlo Gambacorti-Passerini

Introduction Thyroid cancer represents approximately 1% of all neoplasms ( Gimm 2001 ). Incidence in Western countries is about three cases out of 100 000 people. Several histological types of thyroid malignancy are recognized

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Kristine M Wadosky, Jessica M Berthiaume, Wei Tang, Makhosi Zungu, Michael A Portman, A Martin Gerdes, and Monte S Willis

the thyroid hormone receptor, predominantly the α isoform, TRα in the heart. A decrease in TH concentrations has been observed in acute myocardial infarction, and low circulating TH is commonly observed with severe heart failure (HF) ( Gerdes & Iervasi