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Su-Chin Ho, Sui-Sin Goh, Irene H C Kee, Pierce K H Chow, Chin-Pin Yeo, and Daphne H C Khoo

Introduction Graves’ disease (GD) is an autoimmune thyroid disorder resulting from agonistic action of anti-thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor antibodies (TRAB) on the TSH receptors (TSHR), leading to thyroid hyperplasia and

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Ikuhiro Maeda, Toru Takano, Hiroshi Yoshida, Fumio Matsuzuka, Nobuyuki Amino, and Akira Miyauchi

Introduction Thyroid-specific genes, such as thyroid peroxidase (TPO), thyroglobulin (TG), Na + /I − symporter (NIS) and thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) play fundamental roles in the functions of thyroid follicular cells

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Maria Nygård, Nathalie Becker, Barbara Demeneix, Katarina Pettersson, and Maria Bondesson

-binding domain (LBD), which undergoes a conformational change upon hormone binding. The TRs can bind to thyroid hormone response elements (TREs) either as a homodimer or as a heterodimer with retinoid X receptor (RXR). The association of these complexes with DNA

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C Féart, J Vallortigara, D Higueret, B Gatta, A Tabarin, V Enderlin, P Higueret, and V Pallet

vivo by RA. Expression of TRα and TRβ in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) is sensitive to thyroid status ( Meier-Heusler et al. 1995 ). The RA nuclear receptors RARα, RARγ, RXRα and RXRβ have also been found in these cells ( Szabova

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Inna Astapova

the first co-activators, such as steroid receptor co-activators 1–3 (SRC1–3, also known as NCOA1–3) and co-repressors: nuclear receptor co-repressor (NCoR or NCOR1) and silencing mediator of retinoic acid receptor and thyroid hormone receptor (SMRT or

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Dagmara Rusinek, Sylwia Szpak-Ulczok, and Barbara Jarzab

hormone biosynthesis is known to be deregulated in thyroid cancer compared to normal thyroid tissue. The downregulation of the TSH receptor ( TSHR ), NIS , apical iodide transporter ( SLC5A8 ), thyroperoxidase ( TPO ), and thyroglobulin as well as

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Mihael Freamat and Stacia A Sower

. 1997 ) capable of controlling the reproduction in lamprey and involved also in regulation of the thyroid hormones ( Youson & Sower 2001 ). A receptor for lamprey GnRH has also been isolated from the sea lamprey pituitary, its sequence determined, and

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Amy L Filby, Karen L Thorpe, and Charles R Tyler

2006 ). Genes chosen for this study and that mediate somatic growth, development and thyroid and interrenal function were growth hormone ( gh ), growth hormone receptor ( ghr ), insulin-like growth factor-I ( igf1 ), insulin-like growth factor

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Mihael Freamat, Hiroshi Kawauchi, Masumi Nozaki, and Stacia A Sower

transcript was identified in the lamprey testis tissue using RT-PCR. Detectable levels of the receptor transcript were also shown in brain, heart, intestine, kidney, liver, muscle, and thyroid as depicted in Fig. 2 . This figure shows the relative levels of

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Franziska Boess, Cristina Bertinetti-Lapatki, Sannah Zoffmann, Catherine George, Thomas Pfister, Adrian Roth, Serene M L Lee, Wolfgang E Thasler, Thomas Singer, and Laura Suter

t value >32). (B) DNA results for GLP1 receptor expression. *Value below limit of quantification (581 RLU for human; 787 RLU for rat). Gene expression levels of GLP1R were below the limit of quantification for qRT-PCR in both rat and human thyroid