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Vincent Giguère and Ronald M Evans

necessary and sufficient for the transcriptional activation of a reporter gene when re-introduced into a cell ( Hollenberg et al. 1985 , Giguère et al. 1986 ). The rapid subsequent identification of receptors for estradiol, thyroid hormones, aldosterone

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Maria Rossing

Introduction Thyroid cancer is the most common cancer of the endocrine organs and its incidence has increased over recent decades ( Kondo et al . 2006 ). The majority of thyroid carcinomas derive from follicular thyroid cells, also known as thyroid

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Karen Jesus Oliveira, Maria Isabel Chiamolera, Gisele Giannocco, Carmen Cabanelas Pazos-Moura, and Tania Maria Ortiga-Carvalho

diphenyl ethers; T2, 3,5-diio- l -thyronine; THR, thyroid hormone receptor. Bioactive food compounds as thyroid-disrupting factors Some vegetables, such as cabbage, broccoli and cassava, are a source of antithyroid compounds, such as

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Fraydoon Rastinejad, Pengxiang Huang, Vikas Chandra, and Sepideh Khorasanizadeh

Introduction As transcription factors, nuclear receptors (NRs) bind directly to lipophilic ligands, such as steroids, thyroid hormone, retinoids, and dietary lipids, and respond by regulating gene expression programs ( Mangelsdorf & Evans 1995

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Ali Salajegheh, Haleh Vosgha, Atiqur Md Rahman, Moein Amin, Robert Anthony Smith, and Alfred King-Yin Lam

pathophysiology of thyroid carcinoma. Cancer can be invasive and spread through the process of angiogenesis ( Nguyen et al . 2009 ). As a promoter of angiogenesis, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key mediator of tumour-associated angiogenesis and

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David A Lovejoy, Belinda S W Chang, Nathan R Lovejoy, and Jon del Castillo

receptor system to delay gastric emptying ( Martinez et al . 2004 , Czimmer et al . 2006 ). The HPA and hypothalamus–pituitary–thyroid (HPT) axes are closely coupled and the CRH may act as a thyrotrophin-releasing factor in some species (fish and

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Wendy M van der Deure, Robin P Peeters, and Theo J Visser

thyroid hormone receptor ( Yen 2001 ). The biological activity of T 3 is therefore largely determined by the intracellular T 3 concentration which is dependent on a) the circulating T 3 concentration; b) the transport of thyroid hormone across the cell

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L Quignodon, C Legrand, N Allioli, A Guadaño-Ferraz, J Bernal, J Samarut, and F Flamant

binding to thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) expressed from the two TR α and TR βgenes. Like other nuclear receptors, including the closely related retinoic acid receptors, TRs act mainly as heterodimers with retinoid X receptor (RXR), and remain bound to

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Martin Petkovich and Pierre Chambon

members of the steroid/thyroid receptor superfamily, marking the beginning of an important 35-year (and counting) campaign to understand how this key vitamin derived from plants would play such an important role in so many aspects of our molecular

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Haruo Nogami, Yoshiki Hiraoka, Kiyomoto Ogasawara, Sadakazu Aiso, and Setsuji Hisano

onset of GHRH-receptor expression in the developing pituitary gland ( Nogami et al. 1999 ), which establishes functional correlation between brain and pituitary GH cells. In a previous study, we identified two GREs, a thyroid hormone response element