Effects of CCK-8 and GLP-1 on fatty acid sensing and food intake regulation in trout

in Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Correspondence should be addressed to J L Soengas: jsoengas@uvigo.es
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We hypothesize that cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are involved in the modulation of metabolic regulation of food intake by fatty acids in fish. Therefore, we assessed in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) the effects of intracerebroventricular treatment with 1 ng/g of CCK-8 and with 2 ng/g of GLP-1 on food intake, expression of neuropeptides involved in food intake control and the activity of fatty acid-sensing systems in hypothalamus and hindbrain. Food intake decreased up to 24 h post-treatment to 49.8–72.3% and 3.1–17.8% for CCK-8 and GLP-1, respectively. These anorectic responses are associated with changes in fatty acid metabolism and an activation of fatty acid-sensing mechanisms in the hypothalamus and hindbrain. These changes occurred in parallel with those in the expression of anorexigenic and orexigenic peptides. Moreover, we observed that the activation of fatty acid sensing and the enhanced anorectic potential elicited by CCK-8 and GLP-1 treatments occurred in parallel with the activation of mTOR and FoxO1 and the inhibition of AMPKα, BSX and CREB. The results are discussed in the context of metabolic regulation of food intake in fish.

 

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    Food intake in rainbow trout 2, 6 and 24 h after intracerebroventricular administration of 1 µL × 100/g body mass of saline alone (control, CTR) or containing 1 ng/g of rainbow trout CCK-8 or 2 ng/g rainbow trout GLP-1. Food intake is displayed as mean + s.e.m. of the percentage of food ingested with respect to baseline levels (calculated as the average of food intake the 7 days prior to experiment). The results are shown as mean + s.e.m. of the results obtained in three different experiments in which 10 fish were used per group in each tank. Different letters indicate significant differences (P < 0.05) from different treatment at the same time.

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    Levels of fatty acid (A), triglyceride (B), total lipid (C), glucose (D) and lactate (E) in plasma of rainbow trout 2 h or 6 h after intracerebroventricular administration of 1 µL × 100/g body mass of saline alone (control, CTR) or containing 1 ng/g of rainbow trout CCK-8 or 2 ng/g rainbow trout GLP-1. Each value is the mean + s.e.m. of n = 15 fish per treatment.

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    Levels of fatty acid (A and D), triglyceride (B and E) and total lipid (C and F) in the hypothalamus (A, B and C) and hindbrain (D, E and F) of rainbow trout 2 and 6 h after intracerebroventricular administration of 1 µL × 100/g body mass of saline alone (control, CTR) or containing 1 ng/g of rainbow trout CCK-8 or 2 ng/g rainbow trout GLP-1. Each value is the mean + s.e.m. of n = 9 fish per treatment. Different letters indicate significant differences (P < 0.05) from different treatment at the same time. # indicates significantly different (P < 0.05) from 2 h at the same treatment.

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    Activities of CPT-1 (A and D), FAS (B and E) and ACLY (C and F) in the hypothalamus (A, B and C) and hindbrain (D, E and F) of rainbow trout 2 and 6 h after intracerebroventricular administration of 1 µL × 100/g body mass of saline alone (control, CTR) or containing 1 ng/g of rainbow trout CCK-8 or 2 ng/g rainbow trout GLP-1. Each value is the mean + s.e.m. of n = 9 fish per treatment. Different letters indicate significant differences (P < 0.05) from different treatment at the same time. # indicates significantly different (P < 0.05) from 2 h at the same treatment.

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    mRNA abundance of npy (A and E), agrp1 (B and F), pomca1 (C and G) and cart (D and H) in the hypothalamus (A, B, C and D) and hindbrain (E, F, G and H) of rainbow trout 2 and 6 h after intracerebroventricular administration of 1 µL × 100/g body mass of saline alone (control, CTR) or containing 1 ng/g of rainbow trout CCK-8 or 2 ng/g rainbow trout GLP-1. Each value is the mean + s.e.m. of n = 6 fish per treatment. Gene expression results are referred to control group 2 h after treatment previously normalized by β-actin expression. Different letters indicate significant differences (P < 0.05) from different treatment at the same time. # indicates significantly different (P < 0.05) from 2 h at the same treatment.

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    Phosphorylation status of Ampkα (A and C) and Mtor (B and D) in the hypothalamus (A and B) and hindbrain (C and D) of rainbow trout 2 and 6 h after intracerebroventricular administration of 1 µL × 100/g body mass of saline alone (control, CTR) or containing 1 ng/g of rainbow trout CCK-8 or 2 ng/g rainbow trout GLP-1. 20 μg of total protein was loaded on the gel per lane, and results were normalized by β-tubulin abundance. Western blots were performed on six individual samples per treatment and two representative blots per time and treatment are shown here. Graphs represent the ratio between the phosphorylated protein and the total amount of the target protein. Each value is the mean + s.e.m. of n = 6 fish per treatment. Different letters indicate significant differences (P < 0.05) from different treatment at the same time. # indicates significantly different (P < 0.05) from 2 h at the same treatment.

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    Western blot analysis of Bsx (A and D), and phosphorylation status of Creb (B and E) and Foxo1 (C and F) in the hypothalamus (A, B and C) and hindbrain (D, E and F) of rainbow trout 2 and 6 h after intracerebroventricular administration of 1 µL × 100/g body mass of saline alone (control, CTR) or containing 1 ng/g of rainbow trout CCK-8 or 2 ng/g rainbow trout GLP-1. 20 μg of total protein was loaded on the gel per lane, and results were normalized by β-tubulin abundance. Western blots were performed on six individual samples per treatment and two representative blots per time and treatment are shown here. Graphs of CREB and FoxO1 represent the ratio between the phosphorylated protein and the total amount of the target protein. Each value is the mean + s.e.m. of n = 6 fish per treatment. Different letters indicate significant differences (P < 0.05) from different treatment at the same time.

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